Continuous and dynamic expansion of oncotherapeutic options has resulted in a more efficacious local tumor control and improved patient’s life expectancies in many cases. Short term electric impulses applied during electrochemotherapy increase the permeability of cell membrane in a transient and reversible manner. The method therefore facilitates the entry of chemotherapeutic agents from the interstitium to the tumor cell in a high concentration resulting in a localized and maximized cell killer effect in the tumor tissue. The technology was developed originally for the treatment of superficial tumors, but it was applied recently for deep seated neoplasms. Optimalization of the method was also started for the treatment of intraocular tumors on an experimental level. Based on own results and outcomes of the literature authors review new therapeutic methods whether recently introduced in clinical practice or waiting for utilization based on their promising preclinical features.
The author reports on his eight years of work in the Board of the European Ophthalmological Society. In addition to representing the Hungarian Ophthalmological Society, his main achievements are the organization and operation of the SOE Pilot Committee for Public Eye Health, which has achieved breakthroughs and new results in a number of areas: the European Regional WHO Workshop, European data collections on blindness prevention, vision rehabilitation and firework eye injuries, organization of symposia and sessions on eye health, and development and publication of guidelines on blindness prevention and management of myopia.
The case of a 59-year-old female patient with bilateral visual loss is presented. She was admitted to our clinic 6 weeks after the onset of her visual complaints. Following ophthalmologic examination, she was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis. Along with the massive bilateral vitreous haze, large, white infiltrates and haemorrhages were seen on the left retina. The retina on the right side was not visible. Beyond hypertonia and diabetes, the patient was diagnosed with a moderate malignant B-cell lymphoma one and a half years before her visual complaints. She received chemotherapy and biological therapy for the haematologic malignancy. Investigation revealed a CMV retinitis as the causative agent to the bilateral panuveitis. At the same time, an intestinal tumour was extirpated what proved to be a polypoid, CMV-associated vascular proliferation, histopathologically.
Original scientific paper
Objectives: The aim of the research is to assess the results of immunofluorescence tests carried out in the group of patients with cicatrizing conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Immunofluorescence test results of 23 patients with cicatrizing conjunctivitis were reviewed retrospectively. In all cases, patients underwent direct immunofluorescence testing from a conjunctival sample. Indirect immunofluorescence tests were performed in 11 cases, and salt-split-skin test was done in one case. Results: The DIF test was performed 30 times in 23 patients and tested positive 16 times (53.3%). In 13 cases, mucous membrane pemphigoid was confirmed (OcMMP). In 4 cases, another oculodermal disease was diagnosed (pemphigus vulgaris, paraneoplastic pemphigoid, bullous pemphigoid, linear IgA disease). In 14 cases, no pathological difference was confirmed in the sample. In OcMMP patients, linear IgG deposition occurred most frequently (100%) in DIF tests. The IIF test was carried out in 11 cases and tested positive in 4 cases (36.4%). Conclusion: However, the low sensitivity and specificity of DIF does not enable us either the diagnosis or the exclusion of OcMMP based on a sole DIF test, but it brings the diagnosis and the right therapy up. Therefore, it is highly recommended to perform DIF in chronic conjunctivitis prior a commencing therapy. As an additional diagnostic test, the IIF test should also be performed.
Original scientific paper
Objective: To detect macular changes of COVID-19 patients treated at our hospital. Furthermore the evaluation of the correlation between possible macular abnormalities and disease severity. Methods: 53 eyes of twenty-seven patients hospitalized at the COVID department of Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Hospital underwent macular imaging by optical coherence tomography, (OCT) equipped with a multicolor module. Optical coherence tomography of the macula and peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) have been performed along with monochromatic and scanning laser multicolor imaging as well. Four to eight weeks after hospital discharge, imaging was performed on both eyes of 15 patients repeatedly. Chest computed tomography severity index, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer values from the day of the patients’ admittance were recorded. On the day of the OCT examination, we measured actual blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature; the present CRP and D-dimer values were recorded. To evaluate the differences between data from the initial and follow-up examinations, a one sample t-test was applied. Results: Among 27 patients examined at the COVID department, we revealed cotton wool (CW) spots in four cases. In one patient, a CW spot appeared at the follow-up examination. Comparing either macular thickness, macular volume, or RNFLT between COVID-treatment and follow-up (control) examinations, they showed no significant differences.
The authors report a case of bilateral branch retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in a patient with long-term direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) prophylaxis. The 69-year-old female patient presented with sudden blurry vision in both eyes one months after a confirmed COVID-19 infection. The patient’s medical history showed hypertension for 15 years and due to atrial fibrillation dabigatran intake 150 mg twice daily for five years. During thrombophilia screening, anticardiolipin antibodies showed elevated values. We report this case to emphasize that COVID-19 infection can cause severe RVO even in patients with long-term DOAC prophylaxis, thus regarding RVO, patients may not be benefited from DOAC prophylaxis.
Authors report on a case of a 72 year old male who was admitted with unilateral orbital cellulitis being unresponsive to oral antibiotics. Symptoms were developed 9 days after the second dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (VeroCell – China National Pharmaceutical Group Co. Ltd.). Laryngeal edema and tongue swelling presented two weeks after the first dose of the same vaccine requiring emergency care might be of great significance in the patient’s history. On his examination left eye protrusion with moderate ophthalmoplegia and severe chemosis were noted. ORL examination including skull MRI excluded the infection of paranasal sinus origin. Administration of parenteral steroid resulted in prompt improvement of the cellulitis, and several days later, the asymptomatic patient could be emitted. The history was negative for previous COVID-19 infection, and the repeated antigen and PCR tests remained also negative during his stay at the department. Authors concluded that the reported case can be considered as a new adverse event of COVID-19 vaccination that has not been yet published elsewhere.