Original scientific paper
Sándor Petőfi was born two hundred years ago, in 1823. In the nineteenth year of his life, in 1842, a total solar eclipse was visible in Hungary, which the poet observed with his naked eyes and caused permanent damage to his vision. The purpose of our paper is to present solar retinopathy and the case documented by contemporary records and Petőfi's poems.
Submacular haemorrhage arising secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration has a poor prognosis and currently no “gold standard” treatment. Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are widely used, their safety profile is well-known, but at the same time, they can be associated with devastating ocular complications for patients on systemic antithrombotic therapy. We report a case of massive submacular, suprachoroidal, and vitreous haemorrhage after an intravitreal anti-VEGF injection in a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Aims: To describe the clinical appearance and treatment of an isolated inferior rectus eye muscle injury through a case report.
Case report: After a cut injury, a young male patient immediately experienced diplopia without visual impairment. The surgery was performed on the day following the trauma. During the intervention, a partial tear of the inferior rectus muscle was detected. After the reconstruction, a parallel eye position was observed, and the patient became complaint-free.
Conclusions: Traumatic eye muscle injuries can be very diverse. Reconstructive surgical procedures for them are often a challenging task. Isolated eye muscle injuries occurs rarely. It is essential to perform the surgery as soon as possible for a favourable prognosis.
Original scientific paper
Purpose: We evaluated patient data with isolated traumatic eyelid injuries attended in our ophthalmological department during the five-year period before 2019. Methods: The medical records of 321 patients with isolated traumatic eyelid injuries were evaluated retrospectively. The types and causes of the injuries were investigated. We assessed the distribution of the patients’ gender and age, as well as the correlation of these parameters with the cause and type of the injury. Results: 76% of patients were men. In the case of young girls, the most common cause of eyelid injury was dog bites. Among young boys, playing at home proved to be as the main cause of eyelid injuries. The leading causes of isolated eyelid trauma in adults were violence for men and home injuries for women. Conclusions: In the case of children, intensified supervision can enhance prevention, while for adults, awareness and protective equipment can help.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become one of the most significant public health challenges of our time. Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common microvascular complication of the disease, causing drastic and often irreversible visual impairment, severely affecting the quality of life of a considerable proportion of patients. Worldwide, DMO is one of the most common causes of severe visual impairment in working-age adults (20-65 years). With the use of highly effective intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, vision loss can be avoided and, in addition, vision improvement can be expected in a significant patient population. Based on international guidelines and clinical trials, high potency VEGF inhibitors are currently the first-line treatment for macular oedema causing central visual loss. In Hungary, access to the most effective, state-of-the-art treatments is limited in this therapeutic area. The aim of this article is to detail the main features of DMO disease, the current status and challenges of disease management in Hungary, highlighting the need for wider access to highly effective anti-VEGF therapies for DMO patients.
In this paper, as an update to the publication “Genetics in Ophthalmology” (published in Szemészet in 2014), the authors would like to summarize the developments in ophthalmic genetics: new results in biotechnology, diagnostics and therapy. The topmost breakthrough in recent years has been the registration and introduction into clinical practice of voretigene-neparvovec, a drug developed for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) caused by the mutations of the RPE65 gene. In July 2022, the Department of Ophthalmology at Semmelweis University received accreditation as an Ophthalmic Gene Therapy Centre and since then 10 treatments for patients with LCA have been performed. In addition to the treatments, there are many other research and development projects in gene therapy for inherited and acquired diseases. Along with the therapy, genetic diagnostics has also undergone significant development in recent years, with methods becoming significantly faster and more cost-efficient, making them more widely available. In the last one and a half years, more than 500 Hungarian patients with hereditary retinal dystrophy have been genotyped in Hungary in the framework of research collaborations.
Introduction: Childhood uveitis accounts for 5-10% of all uveitis, of which 30-50% are idiopathic. According to a study of Yang et al. retinal vasculitis may be present in up to 79.6% of idiopathic childhood uveitis cases (study of Yang). Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening condition that can occur in isolation or in systemic diseases.
Materials and methods: To review the literature recommendations in the differential diagnosis of paediatric retinal vasculitis through a case report.
Case report: A 17-year-old girl presented with a one-day history of a grey spot in the right eye, flashes of light, and a headache (BCVA 0.4/1.0). On fundus examination, we observed an intact optic nerve head, petechial and striated retinal haemorrhages, narrowed retinal vessels with variable calibre, cotton wool spots; on the right, and vascular sheating on the left side. Due to a picture of bilateral retinal vasculitis confirmed by fluorescein angiography, she was admitted to the inpatient department, where a detailed ophthalmological and systemic examination did not confirm systemic disease. The patient received systemic steroid therapy followed by steroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy for idiopathic primary retinal vasculitis, which improved her condition.
Discussion: Retinal vasculitis may be caused by ocular and systemic, infectious and non-infectious pathologies. The differential diagnosis is a multidisciplinary and often ophthalmologist-led task, where timely initiation of therapy is crucial for preserving the patient's visual acuity or even life.
Original scientific paper
The first issue of the Hungarian „Szemészet” (Ophthalmology) was published in the beginning of 1864 as an appendix of the „Orvosi Hetilap”. Ignác Hirschler edited the ophthalmological appendix between 1864 and 1881 later Vilmos Schulek took over the journal between 1881 and 1904, so he served as chief editor longer than 2 decades. Thereafter for longer than 3 decades i.e.: between 1904 and 1935 Emil Grosz lead the journal, until 1927 alone and later Gusztav Horay helped in editorial tasks. During the Ist WW and also during the IInd WW publishing was interrupted for some years. After the IInd WW the publication started again and it is unbroken until today. In 2012 the outfit of the journal was changed, OFTEX accredited continous education column was started and the journal is also published electronically in open access format.